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germany high or low context culture

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germany high or low context culture

In addition to striving for personal accomplishment through masculine traits, Germans also enjoy tokens of status, which often comes from high-quality cars and new technology. The complexity of a message can be the result of different message components (Lowrey, Citation2008), such as the difficulty of the words that are used (e.g., jargon or words from a foreign language), the syntax of the sentences (see Lowrey, Citation1998), or the length of the message. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. An example of an ad with a juxtaposition metaphor is the one for Land Rover, which shows three objects crossing a large river: two hippos and one Land Rover (with the implicature that the vehicle is able to cross that river as smoothly as the two animals). This result supported H3 (see the lower part of Figure2). [8Dpl>9v >a U=CF]U) S t f,\7aR"=k gYNweK/U$5WF_s.9l@hZU@ l!u]vN%%p'/+Ed>3Wxkpu5\ lYx0R f}8b Guffey, M.E., Lowey, D., Rhodes, K., & Rogin, P. (2013). Cultures can, therefore, be described as Indulgent or Restrained. Desire for stability and caution toward change, Value of academic accomplishments and formal knowledge, Punctuality (reflects reliability and discipline), Strong distinction between public space (formal at work) and private space (informal with family and friends), Healthy balance between work and leisure time, Thoroughness in decision making (analytical, theoretical, deductive), Detail orientation; tendency toward perfectionism, Honesty (may be perceived as overly critical and blunt), Legacy of former communist East (GDR) and capitalist West Germany (FRG), Formality among older generation (use of Sie) vs. informality of the younger generation (use of Du), Strong sense of order and discipline vs. crowding and pushing when standing in line, Lack of mobility vs. open employment market across the European Union (EU), Sophisticated language indicative of social status vs. increasingly pervasive use of D-English (use of Anglicisms), Traditional Christian culture vs. increase of religious diversity entering mainstream society, particularly Islam. With a German audience, I need to be more fact based up front and have a more disciplined presentation style to build a case, almost as if I were in a courtroom.. An example of Germans tentative disposition toward the unknown is the countrys mentality towards Internet privacy. People tend not to smile in public with people they dont know. In high-context cultures, people are said to prefer symbolic, artful language that is implicit. You can often convey more information with fewer words. [6] How does her experience in Japan demonstrate what youve learned so far about the different dimensions of culture? Therefore, empirical evidence was also found for H4, which means that participants' personal context scores indeed mediated the effect of nationality on ad liking. The terms "low-context" and "high-context" usually refer to language groups or nationalities. Imagine an ad for a sports car that does not feature the car, but instead shows a leopard running on a coastal road. The Nine Competencies that Characterize an IEP, Strategies to Increase your IEP[footnote]Deardorff, D. K. (2012). Increased complexity in advertising has been found to affect consumers' comprehension and liking of ads (e.g., Lagerwerf & Meijers, Citation2008; McQuarrie & Mick, Citation1999; Van Mulken, Van Hooft, & Nederstigt, Citation2014). This proved to be the case (F(1, 287) = 5.85, p =.016, 2 =.02). It will be based on the book entitled The Culture Map by an INSEAD professor and cross-cultural specialist Erin Meyer. Similarly, ad liking was higher for Belgian than for Dutch participants, and again, this difference was explained by context score. For instance, See, Petty, and Evans (Citation2009) showed, in two studies, that people with a high need for cognition (who have a tendency to appreciate undertaking cognitive activities) were more motivated to process a complex rather than a simple message, and that people with a low need for cognition were more motivated to process a simple instead of a complex message. A Localization, Interpreting & Translation Services Company. New empirical studies should be conducted with other countries than Belgium and the Netherlands in order to empirically examine Hall's theoretical classification of high- and low-context cultures. Low-context cultures (such as those in North America and Western Europe) depend less on the environment of a situation to convey meaning than do high-context cultures (such as those in Japan, China, and Arab countries). Low-Context Cultures Communicators in low-context cultures (such as those in Germany, Scandinavia, and North America) convey their meaning exclusive of the context of a situation. German Communication Style Low Context Little attention is given to non-verbal cues & body language. Two Types of Reflective Writing Assignments, Additional Resources for Improving Writing, Consistency in comparatives and listed elements: Parallelism, A Note on Punctuating the End of List Items, Hofstede Insights country comparison tool, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oYfhTC9lIQ, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQvqDv4vbEg, https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/42958_2_The_Cultural_Context.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Tend to prefer indirect verbal interaction, Tend to understand meaning at one level only, Tend to understand meanings embedded at many sociocultural levels, Are generally less proficient in reading nonverbal cues, Are generally more proficient in reading nonverbal cues, Communication in highly structured messages, provide details, stress literal meaning, Communication is simple, sometimes ambiguous, messages; understand visual messages readily, Define cultural context (Guffey et al., 2013, p. 64), Contrast communicate styles for low-context and high-context cultures (Meyer, 2017, p. 59), Explain how cultural differences can affect workplace communication (Lavin Agency Speakers Bureau, 2014). When it comes to complex messages in the advertising domain, though, there have been empirical studies that based their expectations on context theory. One framework for approaching intercultural communication is with high-context and low-context cultures, which . The complexity of a message is actually defined by the comprehension of the receiver. Belgium and the Netherlands are highly comparable in their political system, their economic status, and their geographical location, and they both have Dutch as a national language. Praise is rarely given, and when it is given, it is understated, e.g. Criticism is viewed as a sign of forthrightness and honesty. Studies have shown that this satisfaction transfers to higher ad liking and to a more positive product attitude for ads that require considerable cognitive efforts than for ads that need lower cognitive efforts (e.g., Forceville, Citation1996; Phillips, Citation2000; Tanaka, Citation1992). Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. The current study used an abridged version of the scale used by Richardson and Smith (Citation2007), which is among the very few scales available. In the main study, the scale proved to be just adequate ( =.68). For instance, if an ad contains a slogan in a foreign language that the recipient does not recognize (let alone understand), more effort will not result in better comprehension and better liking. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. In total, 289 students participated in this comparative survey-based study. Direct; individualized; principled; fact-oriented; no face-saving concerns or need for harmony. ULG covered the basics of the six cultural dimensions in full here. Measuring a cultural construct responsible for the expected cultural differences at the level of the studies' participants is an essential methodological tool to enable attributing empirical, cultural differences to that cultural construct (Hoeken & Korzilius, Citation2003; Van de Vijver & Leung, Citation1997). Remember that culture is dynamic, and that every individual within a culture is unique and may not conform exactly to the general characteristics of that culture. For an outsider, it is easier to enter into low-context cultures because one does not need to be aware of the shared history/values of the group. It relies on the straightforward use of language, without depending much on nonverbal cues. The indirect effect of nationality on perceived complexity through participants' individual context score proved to be significant (b = .05; CI [0.117, 0.007], bootstrapping technique, N = 50,000). In . On the other hand, he identified countries such as Germany, the United States and Scandinavia as low-context cultures. When it comes to the role of context culture on perceived complexity, a linear regression showed, in the first place, that nationality predicted perceived complexity (F (1, 287) = 4.48, p =.035, R2 =.01; B = .216, SE =.102, p =.035): Belgian participants (M = 3.28, SD = 0.86) perceived the ads as less complex than the Dutch participants (M = 3.49, SD = 0.83). Germany demonstrate the characteristic features of the low-context culture, the communicative style of the German-speaking Swiss is mitigative as they are referred to the high-context culture. It should be noted that the present study cannot rule out a potential role of the participants' study background, as we did not assess this in the questionnaire. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. How Do I Format and Cite Long Direct Quotes? Examples of high-context cultures include Japan, Korea, and India. In order to present participants with ads that varied in complexity, different metaphors were used, including the juxtaposition metaphor, the fusion metaphor, and the replacement metaphor (cf. Self-reliance; responsible for conduct of own life; independence, Balanced Competition An example of this long term orientation is Germanys shifting attitudes towards nuclear energy. The context theory framework has been adopted in cultural studies to a large extent; Cardon (Citation2008), for instance, reviewed 244 articles. A message does not have one given complexity; what is complex to one person is not necessarily complex to another. The cultural context. London: Routledge. Meaning depends on what is said- the literal content of the message- rather than how it is said. There is a strong belief in the ideal of self-actualization. Context High context. endstream endobj 316 0 obj <>stream Managerial guidance appreciated and expected. EJ]?SGfekI NTj\*5~RGzN%#QeOJkLPvYwA9xCk9?FM~0xtCxjg-G3'Uw?g`#IcN!Yr%{U4`8sDUTEP^ To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. German families are prone to center mostly on their immediate relatives, which stands in contrast to collectivist cultures. Honesty is also valued highly because German communication as a whole is incredibly low-context. Source expertise did not play a role when the participants were able to understand the message. The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. brH!|QZi4 0L9~eJ_cTwxme%$ GJN. Complex ads, such as the example of the liquid detergent, may be better comprehended and better appreciated in higher- than in lower-context cultures. Low-context countries, on the other hand, relied more on linear processes and verbal communication. By considering each of these dimensions, youll be able to create a localization strategy that focuses on key elements of German society. Another source of variation is consumers' cultural background; namely, their context culture, as the next section will explain. Managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. McQuarrie & Mick, Citation2003, Citation2009), jargon (cf. Van Mulken etal. The American legal system, for example, relies on low context communication. Use our contact page or Germany has a "low context culture"; the information which is made explicit is extensive. 9. The upper half of the figure models the relationship between receiver nationality and perceived complexity of the message. `Sm-!qJsx(99&om,?Ub8R2yYY0(md]-zW.ASGwqNOY O `Y`\:gh&u Intentions not explicitly stated can often be inferred from the context. aV )I~Wo='h6&XY+]fo)'M@y~. The indirect effect of nationality on ad liking through participants' individual context score also proved to be significant (b = .04; CI [0.104, 0.005], bootstrapping technique, N = 50,000). Let us help you make your transition easy! They also displayed pictures of individuals, while high-context websites foregrounded group pictures. Learn more about our academic and editorial standards. 1 From High Context to Low Context . This study focuses on two Western European countries: Belgium and the Netherlands. In other words, if a recipient has noticed a message, and is motivated to process it, the message will only have an impact on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions if it is comprehended. That is to say, despite these small (but significant) differences in context score in this study, these context scores proved to be the explanation for the national difference in both complexity and liking of the ads. First, it is expected that participants from a higher-context culture will like the complex ad better than participants from a lower-context culture (H3). In contrast, when anthropologist Edward T. Hall developed the terms in the 1930s, his usage was far broader: The original theory compared different views on . Bernstein, B. ;#EtZ-P`IsPv;SFMx+CS~!v}w\ `p>cgVX In general, both Germany and the U.S. are low-context cultures, meaning that information and meaning are usually communicated explicitly through words. According to this hypothesis, the highest level of persuasion is obtained if there is a balance between the required cognitive resources for understanding the message and the cognitive resources that are available from the receiver. Edward T. Hall describes low-context culture as one in which: most of the information is either in the explicit code or readily available elsewhere (Hall, 1976). which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. In addition, personal preference for high/low context was measured on a 5-point scale with nine items taken from Richardson and Smith (Citation2007), which were selected on the basis of a principle component analysis run on data collected in a pretest (N = 30, age: M = 23.90, SD = 2.16). First, it is expected that participants from a higher-context culture perceive the message as less complex than participants from a lower-context culture (H1). Without socialization we do not become human. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email. Germans tend to make a strict distinction between work and social life; therefore expect little small talk in a business context. Croucher, S., Bruno, A, McGrath, P, Adams, C, McGahan, C, Suits, A & Huckins, A. According to the influential context theory of Hall (Hall, Citation1976; Hall & Hall, Citation1990; see also Kittler, Rygl, & Mackinnon, Citation2011), a person's cultural background affects how well that person is able to comprehend complex messages and how well s/he appreciates such messages. D.u{Tet&q3b In general, not a high touch culture. For complex messages to be effective, consumers need to have a minimum of cognitive resources. Studies mainly have accepted Hall's theoretical classification of high- and low-context cultures without attempts to substantiate it empirically (Kittler etal., Citation2011). B`%~Prj_G:r`m^1&[3PfX$]#b?UoZs43avM"M iwz|t&GEyea;Nu;Y;VNv3'k[dX@^kN+Vd4.?BBSKeA{x/ Uyg"] )1MQS z6lx{(7x*g6'lfD2q9up q61M 0.R From the perspectives of both ELM and HSM, comprehension does play a part in the persuasion process, but it is not a necessary condition for persuasion to take place. Strict application of formal rules without much attention to context. Copyright 2023 United Language Group. 312 0 obj <>stream Future studies should, however, incorporate study background as a personal characteristic. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The red line (Benrath-Linie) divides Low German and Middle German. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Many low context cultures are individualist so people openly express their views, and tend to make important information obvious to others. It ranks third in both total exports and imports, and has a strong economy that is the largest in Europe and the 5th largest in the world. Finally, it is expected that the effect predicted in H3 is mediated by participants' context-culture scores (H4): H3: Participants from a higher-context culture like ads with visual metaphors better than participants from a lower-context culture. Our Privacy Policy can be found. It will examine whether it is indeed people's individual context score that affects the degree of comprehension and liking of complex messages. It is the reader who has to infer the so-called implicatures, the inferential steps that are needed to decipher the message (Sperber & Wilson, Citation1995). (_CC Communication is among the most direct in the world following the ideal to be honest, even if it hurts and by this giving the counterpart a fair chance to learn from mistakes. Low-context culture refers to a culture that communicates explicitly. More responsibility; moving up in the company; time off (as monetary rewards are taxed at a very high rate). Jobs are changed infrequently (long-term thinking); labor laws support job stability and make it difficult to dismiss people. For this reason, understanding differences between U.S. and German business communication may prove useful when starting conversations and negotiations with German business partners. German Philosophy. What is the perfect Organisational Culture? All articles are edited by a PhD level academic. From the same gender distributions in the two samples, it might be considered unlikely that, for instance, one sample contained predominantly arts students (which are mostly female students) and the other predominantly engineering students (which are mostly male students). While tokens of status and long-term relationships are valued, the general concept of leisure time and instant gratification is regularly put on the backburner in favor of self-satisfaction down the road. We used 2-item scales for perceived ad complexity and ad liking because participants had to assess these constructs for 12 different ads. Learn more about our academic and editorial standards. Small families with a focus on the parent-children relationship rather than aunts and uncles are most common. 6e`pS"\wFR-O/XXdg%8a'Gz:A9=w5G>+1 ) People with this orientation have the perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong. All the advice on this site is general in nature. Studentsshould always cross-check any information on this site with their course teacher. Low-context cultures rely on explicit communication. Beyond Culture. An example of such a complex ad is an ad for liquid detergent that was used in Western Europe. Required fields are marked *, This Article was Last Expert Reviewed on March 15, 2023 by Chris Drew, PhD. as explicit as possible. This conservative, reasoned approach to problems that arise gives Germany the ability to change quickly to local and global situations. In contrast, high-context cultures use facial expressions, body language, and gestures in a nuanced manner. 1. It is hoped that more research attention will be paid to context culture in the area of culture and advertising. n Performance and target-based; subject expertise important; in public/government institutions, length of service is one aspect of performance appraisal. Intercultural Business Communication by Confederation College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Based on their detail-orientation, they tend to talk at great length. The Belgian students were sampled from the Dutch-speaking part of the country: Flanders. After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Now that we know, broadly, what culture is, lets discuss some ways to categorize aspects of different cultures. Let's analyse the first dimension today! Emotions are discredited as unprofessional; in a business context, trust and credibility are developed through suppression of emotions; tendency to be more emotionally expressive with family and friends, particularly in southern Germany. Examples of low-context cultures include the United States, Australia, and many European countries. After the data collection, two of the participants were randomly selected to receive a 25-euro coupon. In the first half of the theoretical framework, we will outline the role of comprehension in the persuasion process in general, and in the case of complex advertisements in particular. High-context cultures are those in which the rules of communication are primarily transmitted through the use of contextual elements (i.e., body language, a person's status, and tone of voice). Which countries have low context. The visual in the ad displays a piece of clothing with blue liquid detergent in the form of a crocodile attacking a brown, coffee-like stain. Respect for authority; yet open and even confrontational discussions between subordinate and superior are accepted if they are fact-based and related to the subject-expertise of the subordinate. Because of this, communication can change drastically from one generation to the next, creating communication gaps between parents and children. However, be sure to consider that your communication style doesnt highlight instant gratification or a can-do emotion. Germans tend to say their last name when answering the phone; e.g., Miller!. The general terms "high context" and "low context" (popularized by Edward Hall) are used to describe broad-brush cultural differences between societies. Strong analytical orientation. The effect size is small, but what matters is the relationship between personal context score, on the one hand, and perceived complexity and ad liking on the other. This methodological issue is not unique; Cardon (Citation2008), in his review of papers on context culture and communication, also noted that context culture was measured at the individual level in only a minority of studies. However, in conflict situations, Germans often defend their position strongly and loudly (independent of job level). This dimension is defined as the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were raised. Figure 2. In the studies that did investigate the role of context culture in comprehension and persuasion, individuals' nationality was measured but not individuals' context culture. (2014, December 10). In high-context cultures, communication cues are transmitted by posture, voice inflection, gestures, and facial expression. Meetings are only scheduled when necessary; punctuality important; agenda is followed; lengthy discussions of agenda items possible (expression of need for thoroughness). IOR collects cookies to improve your experience on our website. Figure1 visualizes the theoretical model of the role of context culture in perceived complexity and message liking that is under investigation. [5]. At the same time, for many cultures, working in Germany can be challenging because of the direct communication style and high need for detailed information. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on Uncertainty Avoidance. However, is it context culture that is responsible for this variation? /T?KrGM7IL];K7,~`}b`x2Zp|yMkX1h1s]0;Vq4{i `{DXB=1 u`sBY.I43VO9#"43puz qAZf6I'a^OD. Messages are understood at face value. Information has to be explicit and detailed for the message to be conveyed without distortion. Repetition is appreciated for purposes of clarification, as is putting . As we discuss culture, we are making generalizations to create cultural prototypes. These small differences seem to be related to the large similarities between the two populations, both in broad characteristics (e.g., political system, geographical location) and in context culture. Finally, the present study focused on ad liking as a form of persuasion, which makes sense from Hall's predictions about comprehension and appreciation. They predicted lower perceived complexity and higher appreciation (i.e., ad liking) for French and Spanish than for Dutch participants. In absolute terms, the differences between the Belgian and Dutch participants in the comprehension and liking scores were small. They show an ability to adapt traditions easily to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results. While a lot of resources are in the realm of international relations and business, there are some valuable high and low context culture lessons to glean for community engagement. Rather than valuing positions that are based on family connections or age, Germans prefer to put trust in those who demonstrate experience and vast knowledge. Germany has a relatively low score when it comes to indulgence, meaning the country is restrained in nature. Next to this measure of perceived comprehension, other useful approaches are to ask participants to select the appropriate meaning among a list of potential meanings (cf. Le Pair and Van Mulken (Citation2008) examined the perceived complexity and appreciation of ads with metaphors in France, Spain (both relatively high-context cultures), and the Netherlands (a relatively low-context culture). This concept was first advanced by Edward T. Hall in the 1950s. In order to accurately demonstrate the role of context theory, participants' individual context scores should be assessed. High context refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time. In particular he is known for his high and low context cultural factors. One of the biggest differences between cultures is the method by which we communicate. It does so by examining the role of context culture for one example of complex messages: advertisements with visual metaphors. =AUj/9B Xxbhn%nH4o Germany is valued around the world for its precision engineering, especially in the auto industry. 8:00AM and 16:00PM CEST With its first empirical demonstration of the role of context culture on comprehension and persuasion, the current study suggests that using Hall's context theory may be a fruitful way of thinking about adapting messages to diverse cultural audiences. - |Cjg@Q.TN"8. Exact Time In such circumstances, a less complex message is more effective. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. endstream endobj 315 0 obj <>stream If we explore the German culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of German culture relative to other world cultures. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(3356907, 'f3c79a54-94fa-4875-95d8-58d85fe04dc8', {"useNewLoader":"true","region":"na1"}); St. Patricks Day, cable-knit wool sweaters, and lush, green rolling landscapes are what people Read More, How people communicate with one another varies wildly from culture to culture. Germany Germany is one of the so-called " low-context " cultures. Le Pair and Van Mulken (Citation2008, p. 289) stress that their choice to relate the findings on ad liking to participants' context culture is a tentative explanation, and Callow and Schiffman (Citation2002, p. 274) acknowledge, It would also be advantageous to measure context at an individualas opposed to a culturallevel..

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germany high or low context culture